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Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative retinal disease that can cause irreversible visual loss (Bressler, 2004). It is the leading cause of blindness in Europe and North America and accounts for over half of partially sighted or legally blind certifications in the UK (Bunce, 2010). Neovascular (“wet”) AMD is an advanced form of macular degeneration that historically has accounted for the majority of vision loss related to AMD. It is characterised by abnormal blood vessel growth that can result in hemorrhage, fluid exudation and fibrosis, and thus to local macular damage and ultimately vision loss (Owen, 2012). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age populations in the developed world (Cheung, 2010). It is estimated that up to 50% of people with proliferative DR…


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